European Monarchs, Consorts, and Heirs, 1899

CountrySovereignBornAccededConsort (born)Heir (born)

United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland

Queen Victoria
24 May 181920 Jun 1837
Prince Albert Edward,
Prince of Wales (1841)

Austro-Hungarian Empire

Emperor Franz Joseph I
18 Aug 18302 Dec 1848
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
(1863)

Principality of Liechtenstein

Prince Johann II
5 Oct 1840 12 Nov 1858
Prince Franz (1853)

Principality of Montenegro

Prince Nikola I
7 Oct 1841 13 Aug 1860
Princess Milena (1847)


Her. Prince Danilo (1871)

Kingdom of Greece

King George I
24 Dec 184527 Jun 1863
Queen Olga (1851)

Crown Prince Constantine
(1868)

Kingdom of Denmark

King Christian IX
8 Apr 181816 Nov 1863
Crown Prince Frederik (1843)

Kingdom of Belgium

King Leopold II
9 Apr 183517 Dec 1865
Queen Marie Henriette (1836)

Prince Philippe,
Count of Flanders (1837)

Kingdom of Rumania

King Carol I
20 Apr 183920 Apr 1866
Queen Elisabeth (1843)

Crown Prince
Ferdinand (1865)

Kingdom of Sweden
and Norway

King Oscar II
21 Jan 182918 Sep 1872
Queen Sophia (1836)

Crown Prince Gustaf (1858)

Kingdom of Italy

King Umberto I
14 Mar 1844 9 Jan 1878
Queen Margherita (1851)

Crown Prince
Vittorio Emanuele (1869)

Kingdom of Spain

King Alfonso XIII
17 May 1886 17 May 1886
Infanta Mercedes,
Princess of Asturias (1880)

Principality of Bulgaria

Prince Ferdinand I
26 Feb 18617 Jul 1887
Her. Prince Boris (1894)

German Empire

Emperor Wilhelm II
27 Jan 1859 15 Jun 1888
Empress Auguste (1858)

Crown Prince Wilhelm (1882)

Kingdom of Servia

King Alexander I
14 Aug 18766 Mar 1889

Principality of Monaco

Prince Albert I
13 Nov 1848 10 Sep 1889
Princess Alice (1858)

Her. Prince Louis (1870)

Kingdom of Portugal

King Carlos I
28 Sep 186319 Oct 1889
Queen Amelia (1865)

Crown Prince Luis Filipe
(1887)

Grand Duchy of Luxemburg

Grand Duke Adolf
24 Jul 181723 Nov 1890
Grand Duchess Adelheid
(1833)

Her. Grand Duke
Guillaume (1852)

Kingdom of the Netherlands

Queen Wilhelmina
31 Aug 1880 23 Nov 1890
Wilhelm Ernst,
Her. Grand Duke of
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1876)

Russian Empire

Emperor Nicholas II
18 May 1868 1 Nov 1894
Empress Alexandra (1872)

Grand Duke Michael (1878)

Die souveränen Fürstenhäuser Europas (1898-99)
Belle Époque Rulers
Sovereigns
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